viernes, 8 de diciembre de 2006

Colombia: desarrollo excluyente sin sostenibilidad

Queremos compartir este artículo con todos ustedes; están invitados a opinar sobre el.

Para el año 2029, el 70% de la población colombiana estará en riesgo de no contar con suficiente agua para su abastecimiento. Esta preocupante proyección se desprende del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Medio Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales Renovables en Colombia, publicado por el Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales, Ideam, en julio de 2004.

Uno de los hallazgos que más alarma es la proporción anual de pérdidas de capa vegetal. Un promedio de 101 mil hectáreas de bosques se perdieron al año en Colombia entre 1994 y 2001, para un total de 667.285 hectáreas. Las zonas geográficas críticas del país son la región Caribe, el piedemonte amazónico y la zona andina. Los latifundistas, que representan sólo 1% de la población (incluye a empresarios del agro, políticos y paramilitares) son propietarios de 55% de la tierra cultivable en Colombia. En contraste, 85% de la población rural vive bajo condiciones de extrema pobreza.

Menos nieve, más calentamiento y mayor desbalance en los ecosistemas y en el ciclo del agua se reflejan en las cifras sobre recursos hídricos y procesos de desertificación. La "huella ecológica" de esta sociedad, esto es, el espacio verdaderamente ocupado en término de demanda de recursos (tierra, agua, aire) y residuos aumenta de manera acelerada, acumulando un gran déficit.

El modelo de desarrollo capitalista dependiente, característico de la sociedad colombiana, presenta una creciente brecha en la sustentabilidad ambiental y social. La "huella ecológica" es el área de territorio productivo o ecosistema necesaria para producir los recursos utilizados y para asimilar los residuos producidos por una población definida con un nivel de vida específico. Este tiene una extensión de 380 kilómetros a lo largo de los cuales se localizan 41 poblaciones, incluida Bogotá. Nace en el páramo de Guacheteque, municipio de Vallapinzón (Cundinamarca) a 3.300 metros sobre el nivel del mar y desemboca en el río Magdalena, columna vertebral del comercio fluvial colombiano, en Girardot, a 280 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Otros graves problemas ambientales, además de la contaminación del río Bogotá, son los conflictos por el uso del suelo. Las regiones que se encuentran en el centro del Departamento de Cundinamarca demandan gran consumo (residencial e industrial) de agua; y, finalmente la contaminación del aire y los voluminosos residuos son fuente creciente de conflictos ambientales.

La totalidad de las corrientes de aguas andinas están contaminadas, redujeron su oferta recreativa y una cuarta parte de la población no accede al suministro de agua potable. Uribe se raja en lo ambiental.

El Estado y la sociedad colombiana no se dan por entendidos de esta catástrofe ambiental. La gestión ambiental en los municipios y departamentos igualmente es pobre. No existe una política ambiental coherente con las necesidades y graves problemas que afrontan las regiones.


Colombia: desarrollo excluyente sin sostenibilidad
por Libardo Sarmiento Anzola
Desde Abajo
23 de septiembre de 2004

Recopilado por: Germán E. Cortés H.

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Este blog fue creado y es actualizado por (orden alfabético): Nicolás Amézquita, Germán Cortés, Hayden Liu, Raúl Motta, Sebastián Olivares y Nicolás Peña